in press

Benitez-Barrera C, Huang J, Skoe, E, Tharpe AM (in press) Evidence for a Musician Speech-Perception-In-Noise Advantage in School-Age Children Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.


Skoe E, Garcia-Sierra A, Nairan Ramírez-Esparza,  Jiang S (2022)  Automatic sound encoding is sensitive to language familiarity: Evidence from English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. Neuroscience Letters 777(23): 136582.

Parker A, Parham K, Skoe E (in press) Noise exposure levels predict blood levels of the inner ear protein prestin. Scientific Reports 12(1): 1-12.


Skoe E, Scarpati EV, McVeety A (2021) Auditory temporal processing in dancers. Perceptual and Motor Skills 128(4):1337-1353.

Skoe E, Spitzer E, Krizman J, Kraus N (2021)  Auditory cortical changes precede brainstem changes during rapid implicit learning: Evidence from human EEG. Frontiers in Neurosience

Parker A, Parham K, Skoe E (2021) Reliability of serological prestin levels in humans and its relation to otoacoustic emissions, a functional measure of outer hair cells. Ear and Hearing 15;42(5):1151-1162.

Rauterkus G, Moncrieff D, Stewart G, Skoe E (2021) Baseline, retest, and post-injury profiles of auditory neural function in collegiate football players.  International Journal of Audiology Jan 131-13.

Barrett K, Ashley R, Strait D, Skoe E, Limb C, Kraus N (2021) Multi-voiced music bypasses attentional limitations in the brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience 15:588914.

Parker A, Slack C, Skoe E (2020) Comparisons of auditory brainstem responses between a laboratory and home environment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences 63(11), 3877-3892.

Tecoulesco V, Skoe E, Naigles L (2020) Phonetic discrimination mediates the relationship between auditory brainstem response stability and syntactic performance. Brain and Language 208:104810.


Coffey E, Nicol T, White-Schwoch T, Chandrasekaran B, Krizman J, Skoe E, Zatorre R, Kraus N (2019) Evolving perspectives on the sources of the frequency-following response. Nature Communications 10, 5036.

Camera S, Tufts J, Skoe E (2019) Sound exposure and background noise tolerance in listeners with normal audiograms. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 62(7):2564-2570.

Skoe E, Camera S, Tufts J (2019) Noise exposure may diminish the musician advantage for perceiving speech in noise. Ear and Hearing 40(4), 782-793


Tichko P, Skoe E (2018) Musical experience, sensorineural auditory processing, and reading-related skills in adults: A developmental perspective. Brain Science 8(5): 77.

Skoe E, Karayanidi K (2017) Bilingualism and speech understanding in noise: Auditory and linguistic factors. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology

Johns A,  Myers EB, Skoe E (2018) Sensory and cognitive contributions to age-related changes in spoken word recognition. Language and Linguistics Compass 12(2):1-25.

Skoe E, Tufts J (2018) Evidence of noise-induced subclinical hearing loss using auditory brainstem responses and  objective measures of noise exposure in humans.  Hearing Research 361:80-91.


Tufts J, Skoe E (2017) Examining the noisy life of the college musician: Weeklong noise dosimetry.  International Journal of Audiology.

Skoe E (2017) Hearing: The future of sensory rehabilitation  Current Biology Dispatch 27(21) R1163–R116.

Skoe E, Hardin M, Figueiredo M, Burakiewicz E (2017) Basic neural processing of sound in adults is influenced by bilingual experience Neuroscience 349(4):278-290.

Tichko P, Skoe E (2017) Frequency-dependent fine structure in the frequency-following response: The byproduct of multiple generators Hearing Research 348:1-15.

Skoe E, Brody L, Theodore RM (2017). Reading ability reflects individual differences in auditory brainstem function, even into adulthood Brain and Language 64:25-31.


Krizman J, Skoe E, Kraus N (2015) Bilingual enhancements have no socioeconomic boundaries Developmental Science doi: 10.1111/desc.12347.


Lehmann A, Skoe E, Moreau P, Peretz I, Kraus N (2015) Impairments in musical abilities reflected in the auditory brainstem: Evidence from congenital amusia. European Journal of Neuroscience doi: 10.1111/ejn.12931.

Lee KM, Skoe E, Kraus N,  Ashley R (2015) Subcortical distortion products increase the harmonicity of consonant intervals. Music Perception 445-459. 

Lehmann A, Skoe E (2015) Robust encoding in the human auditory brainstem:  Use it or lose it? Frontiers in Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience. 

Slater J, Skoe E, Strait D, O’Connell S, Thompson E, Kraus N (2015) Music training improves speech-in-noise perception: Longitudinal evidence from a community-based music programBehavioural Brain Research 291: 244-252.

Krizman J, Tierney A, Fitzroy A, Skoe E, Amar J, Kraus N. (2015) Continued maturation of auditory brainstem function during adolescence: A longitudinal approach. Clinical Neurophysiology S1388-2457(15): 00083-8.

Nan Y, Skoe N, Nicol T, Kraus N (2015) Auditory brainstem’s sensitivity to human voicesInternational Journal of Psychophysiology 95(3):7333-7.

Spitzer E, White-Schwoch T, Woodruff-Carr K, Skoe E,  Kraus N (2015) Continued maturation of the click-evoked auditory brainstem response in preschoolers Journal of the American Academy of Audiology doi: 10.3766/jaaa.26.1.4.

Skoe E, Krizman J, Spitzer E, Kraus N (2015)  Prior experience biases subcortical sensitivity to sound patterns.  Journal of Cognitive Science 27(1): 124-140.

Krizman J, Slater J, Skoe E, Marian V, Kraus N (2015) Neural processing of speech in children is influenced by bilingual experience. Neuroscience Letters 585C:48-53.


Lahav A, Skoe E (2014) An Acoustic Gap between the NICU and the Womb: A Potential Risk for Compromised Neuroplasticity of the Auditory System in Preterm Infants. Frontiers in Neuroscience doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00381.

Skoe E, Kraus N (2014) Auditory reserve and the legacy of auditory experience. Brain Sciences 4(4):575-93. doi: 10.3390/brainsci4040575.

Slater J, Strait DL, Skoe E, O’Connell S, Thompson E, Kraus N (2014) Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income childrenPlosOne doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0113383.

Skoe E, Krizman J, Anderson S, Kraus N. (2014) Stability and plasticity of auditory brainstem function across the lifespan. Cerebral Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht311.

Skoe E, Chandrasekaran B, Spitzer E, Wong PCM, Kraus N (2014) Human brainstem plasticity: The interaction of stimulus probability and auditory learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory  109: 82-93.

Krizman J, Skoe E, Marian V, Kraus N (2014) Bilingualism increases neural response consistency and attentional control: Evidence for sensory and cognitive coupling. Brain and Language 128: 34–40.

Skoe E & Chandrasekaran B (2014) The layering of auditory experiences in driving experience-dependent subcortical plasticity. Hearing Research doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2014.01.002.


Tierney A, Krizman J, Skoe E, Johnston K, Kraus N (2013) High school music classes enhance the neural processing of speech. Frontiers in Educational Psychology 4:855. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00855.

Skoe E, Krizman J, Kraus N (2013) The impoverished brain: Disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound. Journal of Neuroscience 33(44):17221–17231.

Chandrasekaran B, Skoe E, Kraus N (2013) An integrative model of subcortical auditory plasticity. Brain Topography doi 10.1007/s10548-013-0323-9.

Skoe E, Kraus N (2013) Musical training heightens auditory brainstem function during sensitive periods in development. Frontiers in Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00622. Edited by: Virginia Penhune.

Skoe E, Krizman J, Spitzer E, Kraus N. (2013) The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning. Neuroscience. 243: 104-114.


Skoe E, Kraus N. (2012) A little goes a long way: How the adult brain is shaped by musical training in childhood. Journal of Neuroscience. 32(34):11507–11510.

Song J, Skoe E, Banai K, Kraus N (2012) Training to improve hearing speech in noise: Biological mechanisms. Cerebral Cortex. 22:1180–1190.

Hornickel J, Anderson S, Skoe E, Yi H, Kraus N. (2012) Subcortical representation of speech fine structure relates to reading ability. NeuroReport. 23(1): 6-9.

Krizman J, Marian V, Shook A, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2012) Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(20): 7877-7881.

Krizman J, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2012) Sex differences in auditory subcortical function. Clinical Neurophysiology. 123: 590-597.


Marmel F, Parbery-Clark A, Skoe E, Nicol T, Kraus N. (2011) Harmonic relationships influence auditory brainstem encoding of chords. NeuroReport. 22:504–508.

Skoe E, Kraus N. (2011) Human subcortical auditory function provides a new conceptual framework for considering modularity: A commentary of Isabelle Peretz’ keynote paper “Music, language and modularity in action.” In: Language and music as cognitive systems P. Rebuschat, M. Rohrmeier, J. Hawkins and Ian Cross (eds). Oxford University Press.

Tierney A, Parbery-Clark A, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2011) Frequency-dependent effects of background noise on subcortical response timing. Hearing Research. 282: 145-150.

Song J, Skoe E, Banai K, Kraus N. (2011) Perception of speech in noise: Neural correlates. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 23(9): 2268–2279.

Skoe E, Nicol T, Kraus N.(2011) Cross-phaseogram: Objective neural index of speech sound differentiation. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 196,308–317.


Skoe E, Kraus N. (2010) Hearing it again and again: on-line subcortical plasticity in humans. PlosONE. 5(10): e13645. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013645

Anderson S, Skoe E, Chandrasekaran B, Kraus N. (2010) Neural timing is linked to speech perception in noise. Journal of Neuroscience. 30(14), 4922-4926

Anderson S, Skoe E, Chandrasekaran B, Zecker S, Kraus N. (2010) Brainstem correlates of speech-in-noise perception in children. Hearing Research. 270:151-157

Skoe E, Kraus N. (2010) Auditory brainstem response to complex sounds: a tutorial. Ear and Hearing 31(3): 302-324.

Krizman J, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2010) Stimulus rate and subcortical auditory processing of speech. Audiology Neurotology 15: 332-342.

Wang JQ, Nicol T, Skoe E, Sams M, Kraus N. (2010) Emotion and the auditory brainstem responses to speech. Neuroscience Letters 2010;469(3):319-23


Chandrasekaran B, Hornickel J, Skoe E, Nicol T, Kraus N. (2009) Context-dependent encoding in the human auditory brainstem relates to hearing speech in noise: Implications for developmental dyslexia. Neuron 64: 311-319.

Hornickel J, Skoe E, Nicol T, Zecker S, Kraus N. (2009) Subcortical differentiation of voiced stop consonants: relationships to reading and speech in noise perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106(31): 13022–13027

Banai K, Hornickel JM, Skoe E, Nicol T, Zecker S, Kraus N. (2009) Reading and subcortical auditory function. Cerebral Cortex 19(11): 2699-2707.

Parbery-Clark A, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2009) Musical experience limits the degradative effects of background noise on the neural processing of sound. Journal of Neuroscience 29: 14100-14107.

Parbery-Clark A, Skoe E, Lam C, Kraus N. (2009) Musician enhancement for speech in noise. Ear and Hearing 30(6): 653-661.

Lee KM, Skoe E, Kraus N, Ashley R. (2009) Selective subcortical enhancement of musical intervals in musicians. Journal of Neuroscience 29(18): 5832-5840.

Strait DL, Skoe E, Ashley R, Kraus N. (2009) Musical experience promotes subcortical efficiency in processing emotional vocal sounds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Neurosciences and Music III 1169: 209-213.

Strait DL, Skoe E, Kraus N, Ashley R. (2009) Musical experience and neural efficiency: effects of training on subcortical processing of vocal expressions of emotion. European Journal of Neuroscience 29: 661-668.

Kraus N & Skoe E. (2009) New directions: Cochlear implants. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Neurosciences and Music III. 1169: 516-517.

Kraus N, Skoe E, Parbery-Clark A, Ashley R. (2009) Experience-induced malleability in neural encoding of pitch, timbre and timing: implications for language and music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Neurosciences and Music III. 1169: 543-557.

Dhar S, Abel R, Hornickel J, Nicol T, Skoe E, Zhao W, Kraus N. (2009) Exploring the relationship between physiological measures of cochlear and brainstem function. Clinical Neurophysiology 120: 959-966.

Wang JQ, Nicol T, Skoe E, Sams M, Kraus N. (2009) Emotion modulates early auditory response to speech. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 21(11): 2121–2128.

Hornickel JM, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2009) Subcortical lateralization of speech encoding. Audiology Neurotology 14: 198-207.


Johnson KL, Nicol TG, Zecker SG, Bradlow A, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2008) Brainstem encoding of voiced consonant-vowel stop syllables. Clinical Neurophysiology 119: 2623-2635.

Stegemöller EL, Skoe E, Nicol T, Warrier C, Kraus N. (2008) Musical training and vocal production of speech and song. Music Perception 25(5): 419-428.

Russo NM, Bradlow AR, Skoe E, Trommer BL, Nicol T, Zecker S, Kraus N. (2008) Deficient brainstem encoding of pitch in children with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Neurophysiology 119(8): 1720-1731.

Song JH, Skoe E, Wong PCM, Kraus N. (2008) Plasticity in the adult human auditory brainstem following short-term linguistic training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 20(10): 1892-1902.


Musacchia G, Sams M, Skoe E, Kraus N. (2007) Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 104(40): 15894-15898.

Wong PCM, Skoe E, Russo NM, Dees T, Kraus N. (2007) Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nature Neuroscience 10: 420-422.